Radiocarbon dating the first temples of mankind. Located in Turkey, Gobekli Tepe is a vast Stone Temple building. In all other directions, the ridge descends steeply into slopes and steep cliffs. Standing stones erected in the north-northwestern sections of the walls in two key enclosures at Göbekli Tepe bore large holes that framed the setting of Deneb each night, highlighting the star’s significance to the Göbekli builders, and showing the precise direction in which the shaman should access the sky world. New structures were built to replace them, but as time went on they became much smaller in construction, until eventually the cell-like buildings were no larger than a family-sized Jacuzzi with pillars no more than five feet (a meter and a half) in height. It was excavated by the German Archaeological Institute and has been submerged by the Atatürk Dam since 1992. The new study focused on enclosures B,C, and D, which are known to be slightly older than A. K. Schmidt in Schmidt (ed.) [38] Layer II is assigned to Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB). Between ca. Vorläufiger Bericht zu den Grabungen am Göbekli Tepe und am Gürcütepe 1995–1999. 6000-4100 BC. In the north, the plateau is connected to a neighbouring mountain range by a narrow promontory. AoM Archive, We are pleased and honored to welcome back as June Author of the Month Andrew Collins. David Lewis-Williams and David Pearce, "An Accidental revolution? Alternatively, they could have served as totems. A site that is 500 years younger is Nevalı Çori, a Neolithic settlement. [12] The pillars weigh 10–20 metric tons (10–20 long tons; 11–22 short tons), with one still in the quarry weighing 50 tons. Were their deeds mythologised into the stories of the human angels called Watchers found in the book of Enoch, and the Anunnaki gods alluded to in Mesopotamian tradition? A pair decorated with fierce-looking lions is the rationale for the name "lion pillar building" by which their enclosure is known. These people were most likely the product of interactions between Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans at the dawn of the Upper Paleolithic age, c. 40,000-30,000 BC. All that remained was an enormous belly-like mound that became an ideal expression of the fact that the stone enclosures had originally been seen, not just as star portals to another world, but also as womb-like chambers, where the souls of shaman, or indeed the spirits of the dead, could quite literally journey to the source of creation, located somewhere in the vicinity of the Cygnus constellation. The site was abandoned after the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB). Since 1994 CE, excavations conducted by Klaus Schmidt of the Istanbul branch of the German Archaeological Institute, with the cooperation of the Şanlıurfa Museum, have been taking place at the site. Carbon dating suggests that (for reasons unknown) the enclosures were backfilled during the Stone Age. A memory also of this crucial epoch in human development is preserved perhaps in the stories of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Why on earth was Göbekli Tepe built? Both birds are identified with the Cygnus constellation. Klaus-Dieter Linsmeier and Klaus Schmidt: "Ein anatolisches Stonehenge". there are no depictions of hunting raids or wounded animals, and the pillar carvings generally ignore game on which the society depended, such as deer, in favour of formidable creatures such as lions, snakes, spiders, and scorpions. From History of the Saints, Phillippe Buache, Published in 1783 in Paris. "[61] It is not known why every few decades the existing pillars were buried to be replaced by new stones as part of a smaller, concentric ring inside the older one. They range from 10 to 30 metres in diameter. Comments on 14C-Dates from Göbekli Tepe. Klaus Schmidt (2009) "Göbekli Tepe – Eine Beschreibung der wichtigsten Befunde erstellt nach den Arbeiten der Grabungsteams der Jahre 1995–2007"; Dietrich, Oliver. Whether the circles were provided with a roof is uncertain. Andrew’s latest book Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods is the culmination of twenty years’ study of the origins of the Watchers and Nephilim of the book of Enoch, and the Anunnaki of Sumerian myth and legend. This could indicate that this type of architecture and associated activities originated at Göbekli Tepe, and then spread to other sites. Göbekli Tepe (Turkish: [gœbecˈli teˈpe],[1] "Potbelly Hill"),[2] also known as Girê Mirazan or Xirabreşkê (Kurdish),[3] is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey approximately 15 km (9 mi) as the crow flies or 30 km (19 mi) by car, northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa. Unequivocally Neolithic are three T-shaped pillars that had not yet been levered out of the bedrock. With Stone Age tools. It is very possibly these great ancestors who are perhaps represented by the snake- or reptilian-headed clay figurines found in several Ubaid cemeteries. Göbekli Tepe is thought to have been built in various phases. Do they pertain to the manner in which Göbekli Tepe was built to curtail the catastrophobia rife among the indigenous peoples of the region in the wake of the Younger Dryas impact event? Julia Gresky, Juliane Haelm and Lee Clare, "Modified human crania from Göbekli Tepe provide evidence for a new form of Neolithic skull cult". Göbekli Tepe: Who Built It, When, and Why? The discovery is that important. [7] During the first phase, belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), circles of massive T-shaped stone pillars were erected—the world's oldest known megaliths.[8]. In defense of an archaeology of cult at Pre-Pottery Neolithic Gobekli Tepe", "Gobekli Tepe: The World's First Temple? Even after Deneb ceased to be Pole Star around 14,000 BC, due to the effects of precession (the slow wobble of the earth’s axis across a cycle of approximately 26,000 years), its place was taken by another Cygnus star, Delta Cygni, which held the position until around 13,000 BC. It is believed that Göbekli Tepe is a burial site, so far graves have not been found. Everything suggests the Swiderians possessed a sophisticated cosmology gained in part from their cousins, the Solutreans of Central and Western Europe, who were themselves related to the Eastern Gravettian peoples. [14], The site was first noted in a survey conducted by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago in 1963. The largest of them lies on the northern plateau. Rectangular buildings make a more efficient use of space compared with circular structures. It sits smack in the middle of the fertile crescent, where earliest humans began the agricultural revolution. So far, very little evidence for residential use has been found. Their profiles were pecked into the rock, with the detached blocks then levered out of the rock bank. More than 200 pillars in about 20 circles are known (as of May 2020) through geophysical surveys. Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit.". According to the book of Enoch, the human angels revealed to their wives the secret arts of heaven, many of which correspond with a number of firsts for humanity that took place in Southwest Asia in the wake of the Neolithic revolution. Erika Qasim: "The T-shaped monuments of Gobekli Tepe: Posture of the Arms". In 2018, the site was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [60], The assumption that the site was strictly cultic in purpose and not inhabited has been challenged as well by the suggestion that the structures served as large communal houses, "similar in some ways to the large plank houses of the Northwest Coast of North America with their impressive house posts and totem poles. Credit: DAI Evidence that Gobekli Tepe was peopled by hunter-gatherers as opposed to farming folk comes from the over 100,000 bits and bobs of bone found there, which had clearly been cooked. [11][unreliable source?] He presumed shamanic practices and suggested that the T-shaped pillars represent human forms, perhaps ancestors, whereas he saw a fully articulated belief in deities as not developing until later, in Mesopotamia, that was associated with extensive temples and palaces. Stonehenge was built in 3000 BC, and the oldest signs of human writing were created in Sumer in 3,300 BC. ): K. Schmidt: "Frühneolithische Tempel. In: Charles C. Mann, "The Birth of Religion: The World's First Temple". The authors suggest that enclosures A, B, and D are all one complex, and within this complex there is a "hierarchy" with enclosure D at the top. I stand by this statement and add only that with his vast knowledge of the subject under discussion, there is no one better suited to reveal Göbekli Tepe’s place in history today”, Graham Hancock from his Introduction
 to Göbekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods. Who created it, and why? Partners include the German Archaeological Institute, German Research Foundation, Şanlıurfa Municipal Government, the Turkish Ministry of Tourism and Culture and, formerly, Klaus Schmidt. Scholars have been unable to interpret the pictograms, and do not know what meaning the animal reliefs had for visitors to the site. It is 1.92 metres high, and is superficially reminiscent of the totem poles in North America. They are fitted into sockets that were hewn out of the local bedrock. Though no tombs or graves have yet been found, Schmidt believed that graves remain to be discovered in niches located behind the walls of the sacred circles. that the elevated location may have functioned as a spiritual center during 10,000 BCE or earlier, essentially, at the very end of the Pleistocene. And their target: the setting down on the local horizon of Deneb, Cygnus’s brightest star, which marked the start of the Milky Way’s Great Rift, a role played by Deneb as early as 16,500-14,000 BC. Presumably this is the remains of a Roman watchtower that was part of the Limes Arabicus, though this is conjecture.[28]. This advanced society, who thrived in both Central and Eastern Europe around the time of the comet impact event of 10,900 BC, was responsible for the foundation of various important post-Swiderian cultures of the Mesolithic age as far north as Norway, Finland, and Sweden, as far south as the Caucasus Mountains, and as far east as the Upper Volga river of Central Russia. If Swiderian groups were the shamanic elite responsible for Göbekli Tepe, then there is every chance that the cosmic knowledge encoded into its construction came, at least in part, from highly evolved individuals who were by nature Neanderthal-human hybrids of striking physical appearance. More incredibly, anatomical evidence points to them being of striking appearance – tall, with extremely long heads, high cheekbones, long faces, large jaws, and strong brow ridges, which some have seen as evidence they were Neanderthal-human hybrids. At 12000 years, Gobekli Tepe is the oldest known stone ruins whose builders are unknown. [35] Whether they were intended to serve as surrogate worshippers, symbolize venerated ancestors, or represent supernatural, anthropomorphic beings is not known. The roughly contemporary architecture at Jericho is devoid of artistic merit or large-scale sculpture, and Çatalhöyük, perhaps the most famous Anatolian Neolithic village, was built 2,000 years later. At some point attempts had been made to break up some of the pillars, presumably by farmers who mistook them for ordinary large rocks. Göbekli Tepe is a name familiar to anyone interested in the ancient mysteries subject. Göbekli Tepe (Turkish for the ‘hill of the navel’) is a 1000 foot diameter mound located at the highest point of a mountain ridge, around 9 miles northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa (Urfa) in southeastern Turkey. [64], The stated goals of the GHF Göbekli Tepe project are to support the preparation of a site management and conservation plan, construction of a shelter over the exposed archaeological features, training community members in guiding and conservation, and helping Turkish authorities secure UNESCO World Heritage Site designation for GT. Artist Fernando Baptista sculpts a model of Göbekli Tepe. In this area, flint and limestone fragments occur more frequently. Since then, the DAI's research at the site has been coordinated by Lee Clare. [65], The conservation work caused controversy in 2018, when Çiğdem Köksal Schmidt, an archaeologist and widow of Klaus Schmidt, said the site was being damaged by the use of concrete and "heavy equipment" during the construction of a new walkway. Butchered bones found in large numbers from local game such as deer, gazelle, pigs, and geese have been identified as refuse from food hunted and cooked or otherwise prepared for the congregants. Confirmation of the presence of this holy relic at the monastery (which in the seventh century was given a special decree of immunity from attack signed by the prophet Mohammed himself) reveals what could be Adam’s ultimate secret—the manner in which we as mortals can re-enter Paradise and become, as once we were, like angels ourselves. Two hundred of their number are said to have descended among mortal kind and taken mortal wives, who produced giant offspring called Nephilim. Even the design of the enclosures appears to have cosmic significance. 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