It is quite clear that the Russian revolution cannot leave its Western advance-guard in the hands of the Prusso-Austrian soldiery. We are proving to the Polish masses, firmly and persistently, not in words but in deeds – and, primarily, by most strict fulfilment of the Treaty of Riga – that we want peace, and are thereby helping to preserve it. One individual makes the sensational discovery that the Red Army is a class army, the army of the proletarian dictatorship. Military matters are very empirical, very practical matters. The latter purge was accompanied by the "exposure" of the "Former Officers Plot". of Russian Poland must lead to the revolt of Galicia and Poznan. This was well understood by old Clausewitz: ‘Perhaps it would not be impossible to write a systematic theory of war, full of intelligence and substance; but the theories we presently possess are very different. In September 1938, the People's Commissar for Defense, Kliment Voroshilov, reported that a total of 37,761 officers and commissars were dismissed from the army, 10,868 were arrested and 7,211 were condemned for anti-Soviet crimes. The operations of civil war are, unquestionably, distinguished by an exceptional element of manoeuvring. The crisis in trade and industry is assuming monstrous proportions. Quite apart from their unscientific spirit, they try so hard to make their systems coherent and complete that they are stuffed with common-places, truisms and nonsense of every kind. So far as we are concerned, we – alas! When we advanced, they retreated, and vice versa. But the role of the arms of France – that is, of an advanced country in relation to backward Europe – proved to be very limited and transient. Armed intervention can hasten the denouément and facilitate the victory. The trial was preceded by several purges of the Red Army. But within only a few months it was shown that time had worked well for us. This doctrine cTntains two elements: international-political and operational-strategic. The initiative for the offensive has temporarily passed to the bourgeoisie. But the subject of war is man, who possesses certain fixed anatomical and mental traits from which are derived certain usages and habits. In this sense it can be said that the content of military regulations is determined directly by military doctrine. How should we prepare to resist? Trotsky’s theory of permanent revolution, initially formulated in collaboration with the Social Democrat Alexander Parvus just before the 1905 Revolution, was distinct from those of both the Mensheviks and Lenin, but far closer to the latter. But, you see, what this shows is, precisely, the fact – how strange that this is over-looked! Let us not seek for general logical definitions, because these will hardly, by themselves, get us out of the difficulty. But we must ask this question, quite precisely: does the Red Army’s manoeuvring result from its inner qualities, its class nature, its revolutionary spirit, its fighting zeal – or is it due to the objective conditions, to the vastness of the theatres of war and the comparatively small numbers of troops involved? One of the most important tasks of our domestic policy in recent times has been to draw closer to the peasant. But one has to be cautious when resorting to them. We must read, discuss and correct the regulations at conferences of commanders. Finally, the highest capacity for manoeuvring was characteristic of the operations of Ungern and Makhno, those degenerate, bandit outgrowths of the civil war. The political emancipation of Russia led by the working class will raise that class to a height as yet unknown in history, will transfer to it colossal power and resources, and will make it the initiator of the liquidation of world capitalism, for which history has created all the objective conditions. And it is just here that the most confused muddling begins. [clarification needed] It is notable that the forged documents were not even used by Soviet military prosecutors against the generals in their secret trial but instead relied on false confessions extorted or beaten out of the defendants. On the extreme ‘Left’ wing, guerrilla-ism was openly defended. ‘The old army was an instrument of class oppression of the working people by the bourgeoisie. War of manoeuvre is war of great spaces. Trotsky chose to concentrate on developing a small but disciplined and professionally competent force. Compared with the revolutionary tasks that confront us today, the revolutionary task of the French army was much more superficial in character. The endeavour to fix as laws and erect into dogmas those features of the Red Army’s strategy and tactics which were characteristic of it in the recent period could do a great deal of harm and could even prove fatal. But such an appraisal would be pedantically banal. He is only formulating poorly something old. But there is no ground for such a presupposition. The basic work in evaluating the international situation and the tasks for the proletarian revolution and the Soviet Republic which result from it is being performed by the Party, by its collective thinking, and the directive forms of this work are provided by the Party’s congresses and its central committee. In a civil war each side finds sympathy and support, to a greater or lesser degree, in the opponent’s rear. Which ones? Only Ulrikh, Budyonny and Shaposhnikov would survive the purges that followed. That is, what is the content of these new principles which have to enter into the programme for building the army? 1917 (10th October) At a meeting of the Bolshevik Central Committee, Lenin called for a Bolshevik Revolution. The power of the United States rules out the possibility of automatically maintaining any longer the dominant position of the British navy. Our efforts are directed to safeguarding for the workers and peasants as long a period of peace as possible. What constituted, even during the interval of time between the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71 and the imperialist war of 1914, the content of the military doctrine of France? German imperialism appeared in the world arena as an upstart, went too far, slipped up and was smashed to pieces. The education of the commanders, the preparation of the individual fighter ... armament – all this (!) But perhaps this Germany will merely provide the impulse that will prove fatal to the present rotten semi-equilibrium and clear the way for the Germany of Liebknecht and Luxemburg? It is not difficult to imagine that the existence of a revolutionary regime in the nine [sic] provinces [Russian Poland was divided into ten provinces.] ’God is a spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.’ (John, 4:24). The trial triggered a massive subsequent purge of the Red Army. It is proclaimed that the second specific feature of revolutionary strategy is its aggressiveness. What is our actual orientation where Poland is concerned? And if a strategical retreat is legitimate, then it is wrong to reduce all strategy to the offensive. The Case of the Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, also known as the Military Case or the Tukhachevsky Case, was a 1937 secret trial of the high command of the Red Army, … If the Communist International could be created de facto only after strong Communist organisations had been formed in the most important countries, this applies even more to an international general staff, which could arise only on the basis of the national general staffs of several proletarian states. Stephen Lee, European Dictatorships 1918-1945, page 56, Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, "Case of the Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,, Case of the Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles needing additional references from January 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Известия ЦК КПСС" ("Izvestiya TseKa KPSS" - Reports of the, "Report of the Party Commission headed by N. Shernik, June 1964. 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